A complete guide for diffrences between Conditional Forwarding and Stubs

Stub zones are dynamic and the name servers for the zone are automatically updated in the stub zone.Use conditional forwarders to forward queries for specific domain names to a specific DNS server, this reduces recursive DNS traffic.Stub zones are capable of zone transfers (which only includes name servers), so they stay current. Forwarders do not.

In situations where you want DNS clients in separate networks to resolve each others’ names without having to query DNS servers on the Internet, such as in the case of a company merger, you should configure the DNS servers in each network to forward queries for names in the other network. DNS servers in one network will forward names for clients in the other network to a specific DNS server that will build up a large cache of information about the other network. When forwarding in this way, you create a direct point of contact between two networks’ DNS servers, reducing the need for recursion.

Stub zones do not provide the same server-to-server benefit because a DNS server hosting a stub zone in one network will reply to queries for names in the other network with a list of all authoritative DNS servers for the zone with that name, instead of the specific DNS servers you have designated to handle this traffic. This configuration complicates any type of security settings that you want to establish between specific DNS servers running in each of the networks.

Stub zones are used when you want a DNS server hosting a parent zone to remain aware of the authoritative DNS servers for one of its child zones. If the stub zone for a child zone is hosted on the same DNS server as the parent zone, the DNS server hosting the stub zone will receive a list of all new authoritative DNS servers for the child zone when it requests an update from the stub zone’s master server . This method of updating the DNS server hosting the parent zone maintains a current list of the authoritative DNS servers for the child zone as they are added and removed.

A conditional forwarder is not an efficient method of keeping a DNS server hosting a parent zone aware of the authoritative DNS servers for a child zone. If you used this method, whenever the authoritative DNS servers for the child zone changed, the conditional forwarder setting on the DNS server hosting the parent zone would have to be manually configured with the IP address for each new authoritative DNS server for the child zone.

Stub zones are often used to enable a parent zone like proseware.com to keep an updated list of the name servers available in a delegated child zone, such as east.proseware.com. They can also be used to improve name resolution and simplify DNS administration.

Here’s a little info on that: A stub zone is an actual zone that would exist on the DNS server that contains just the SOA record for the zone it refers to and the DNS server’s records and glue records (host A records). The stub zone replicates from the master DNS server in the zone it refers to and will keep current with DNS servers for that zone/domain. It is more work to set up than conditional forwarding and requires permission from the administrator of the other domain because it does zone transfers with it. However, it is more reliable in keeping current with the DNS servers in the zone.

Stub zones provide a way for DNS servers hosting a parent zone to maintain a current list of the authoritative DNS servers for the child zones. As authoritative DNS servers are added and removed, the list is automatically updated.

Conditional forwarding, on the other hand, is used to control where a DNS server forwards queries for a specific domain. A DNS server on one network can be configured to forward queries to a DNS server on another network without having to query DNS servers on the Internet.


Stub zones provide an advantage over conditional forwarding because the information in a stub zone is dynamic, whereas the list of conditional forwards must be updated by a DNS administrator.

Here’s a little more info:

A stub zone contains NS RECORDS of the master zone which is updated regularly. Stub zones can be used in the following situations:

In case you have multiple levels of domain hierarchy you can use stub zones to simplify name resolution instead of DNS servers querying the root server. It can replace secondary zones when configuring fault tolerance. They can facilitate DNS connectivity across domains. Consider this example you have forest contoso.com and the following domain tree ny.contoso.com (with acc.ny.contoso.com as sub domain) and sa.contoso.com (with fin.sa.contoso.com as sub domains).

So if a client in acc.ny.contoso.com tries to access resources in fin.sa.contoso.com and stub zones are not configured then multiple dns servers will have to be contacted i.e in following order:






Instead if a stub zone was created in acc.ny.contoso.com then it contains the list of authoritative DNS servers for the zone and queries from acc.ny.contoso.com can be directly sent to fin.sa.contos.com.

You could argue that same thing can be configured through conditional fowarding but if there are changes in DNS records then conditional fowarding would fail. Conditional fowarding can be used in situations where you want to resolve Internet names or if you have a DNS server in your organisation that is responsible for your entire namespace. Stub zones can be used in sites to avoid querying other DNS servers to reduce DNS related traffic.

Also stub zones help in delegation. For example when a parent zone contains information about a child zone i.e contains NS records for 2 DNS servers configured for the child zone. If the administrator of the child adds additional DNS servers or makes changes to existing DNS infrastructure then the Parent zone won’t know about this change. Instead if the parent DNS server is configured with a stub zone for its child zone then all changes made to the child zone DNS server’s NS records would become available to the parent zone.

Conditional Forwarding does not participate in zone transfers, while stub zones do. with conditional forwarding, when a query is sent to the DNS server, it will perform recursion and get the answer to the query.  With stub zones, a referral is given to the resolver (client).

 A conditional forwarder setting configures the DNS server to forward a query it receives to a DNS server depending on the DNS name contained in the query. A stub zone keeps the DNS server hosting a parent zone aware of all the DNS servers authoritative for a child zone.

Researchers are working on a lie detector to sniff out false tweets

Sure, some less-than-true statements on Twitter are innocuous, but the social media network’s vast audience means it has huge potential to spread inaccurate, even dangerous, information. Citing examples like the 2011 London riots and accusations of vote-rigging during Kenyan elections, researchers at the University of Sheffield have introduced the concept of a lie detector to analyze information shared on Twitter and other sites.

The EU-funded project, dubbed Pheme, will sort online rumors into four categories: speculation, controversy, misinformation and disinformation. Additionally, Pheme will evaluate sources to determine their authority; tweets from the BBC would hold more weight than an unverified user’s, for example. The system will also search for sources to confirm or deny information in a tweet, following social media conversations about a given topic to eventually determine what’s true and what’s false. Hypothetically, users would be able to view info about a rumor’s accuracy via a virtual dashboard.

To test out of the project, scientists will be running trials with the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation and the Institute of Psychiatry at King’s College London. Clearly, Pheme’s goal is to verify news on a national and even international scale — so your Twitter fibs about amazing weekend plans are safe, for now.

10 Things to Know About Satya Nadella, Microsoft’s New CEO

So it’s official: more than five months after Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced his intention to retire, he has a successor. Satya Nadella, the company’s executive VP of cloud and enterprise, was on lists of potential Ballmer replacements all along, and as higher-profile possibilities like Ford’s Alan Mulally fell off the roster, he went from apparent dark horse to leading candidate to the guy.

Here are some key tidbits to mull over as he gets ready to take on what may be the single most challenging gig in the tech industry.

1. He was born in Hyderabad, India. And moved to the U.S. after graduating from Manipal University. That an immigrant will run this most American of companies is an inspiring story in itself.

2. He’s a longtime Microsoft insider. Nadella joined the company in 1992 from onetime Silicon Valley icon Sun Microsystems; he’s been a Microsoftie for well over half the company’s existence.

3. He’s an engineer. Unlike Steve Ballmer, who was an assistant product manager at Procter & Gamble before joining Microsoft in 1980, Nadella started out as a technologist. He holds a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Manipal University and a master’s in computer science from the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

4. But also a business type. In addition to his technology-oriented degrees, he has a master’s in business administration from the University of Chicago.

5. He’s been promoted again and again. Among his other high-level positions before he was appointed executive vice president for the cloud and enterprise group last year: president of the server and tools business, senior VP of R&D for the online-services division, VP of the business division, senior VP of search, portal and advertising-platform group, VP of development for the business-solutions group, and general manager of consumer and commerce.

Satya Nadella Will Replace Steve Ballmer as Microsoft CEO

Microsoft released a video late Monday introducing the world to Satya Nadella, a 46-year-old who has been at the company for 22 years and is the man chosen to lead after Steve Ballmer’s exit.

“The one thing that I would say that defines me is  I love to learn,” Nadella said in his first interview as Microsoft’s chief. (He will be the technology giant’s third CEO ever.) “I get excited about new things. I buy more books than I read or finish.”

The appointment of Nadella, a native of Hyderabad, India, makes him the most powerful Indian-born tech executive in the world, according to Reuters. It also ends a months-long search that reportedly included such high-profile executives as Ford CEO Alan Mulally and former Nokia CEO Stephen Elop.

Nadella ran Microsoft’s Cloud and Enterprise group, where he was responsible for the firm’s ambitious “Cloud OS” effort to move software and storage from on-site computers to the Internet. Previously, Nadella was president of Microsoft’s $19 billion Server and Tools Business, where he’s credited with spearheading the company’s push toward cloud-computing. Over the last two decades Nadella has worked closely with Ballmer and Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates.

Nadella joined Microsoft in 1992 from Sun Microsoystems, according to the company. He earned a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Mangalore University, a master’s degree in computer science from the University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee and an MBA from the University of Chicago.

Now Nadella faces a stark set of challenges. Microsoft has struggled to keep up with Apple and Google in the booming mobile market. Despite pouring billions of dollars into mobile software and gadgets like the Surface tablet, the company has not been able to find a formula to compete successfully with Cupertino and Mountain View. Last fall, Microsoft announced a $7.2 billion deal to buy Nokia’s mobile phone business.

The latest U.S. mobile device and software market numbers underscore the uphill battle Microsoft faces. Microsoft’s mobile software accounts for a just 3.6% of the market, compared to 81% for Google’s Android platform and 12.9% for Apple’s iOS, according to research firm IDC. And Nokia is nowhere to be found on IDC’s list of the top global smart phone manufacturers, which is dominated by Samsung and Apple.

Understanding Windows NTFS Permissions

Even though Windows permissions have been around for a long time, I still run into seasoned network administrators that aren’t aware of the new changes that came with Windows 2000 so long ago. When Microsoft released Windows 2000, they released a new version of NTFS, which was versioned 5. The new NTFS permissions were essentially the same logical control as the older version that was available in Windows NT, however, there were some radical and essential changes that occurred to control how the permissions were inherited and configured for each file and folder. Since NTFS permissions are available on every file, folder, Registry key, printer, and Active Directory object, it is important to understand the new methods and features that are available once you have Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows 2003 Server installed to control resources.

Standard Permissions

Standard permissions are those permissions that control a broad range of detailed permissions. The most popular and infamous standard permission is Full Control. This is what everyone wants, but in reality very few should get. Full Control allows the user that is granted this suite of permissions to do virtually anything to the object the permissions are associated with. The other standard permissions include the following:


Read & Execute

Folders have the same standard permissions as files, except there is one additional standard permission “List Folder Contents.”

How to enable .NET Framework 3.0 and 2.0 manually in Windows 8.1 RTM

Windows 8.1 comes with latest version of .NET Framework i.e. 4.5 but, the Windows 8.1 doesn’t come with enabled .NET Framework version 3.0 and 2.0. Some of the desktop utilities still use old 3.0 or 2.0 versions of .NET Framework which can’t work until it is enabled.

Although, whenever the .NET Framework is needed, Windows will ask you to install it from Windows Updates but, it requires internet to be downloaded. Windows 8.1 also asks you to install this feature from Windows Updates but, it fails to download since, the servers are not up yet.

But, the good news is that you can still add .NET Framework 3.0 and 2.0 easily with simple commands without using internet.

Before proceeding to the instructions to enable .NET Framework, you need to fulfill a requirement which has been mentioned below.

  • You will need a Windows 8.1 ISO file which you used to install or upgrade Windows 8.1. This ISO file will work as the source of .NET Framework and Windows will install it from that ISO.

Follow the instructions below to enable .NET Framework 3.0 or 2.0 in your Windows 8.1 RTM.


What is OEM Software?

Answer: OEM stands for “original equipment manufacturer” and OEM software is a phrase that refers to software that is sold to computer builders and hardware manufacturers (OEMs) in large quantities, for the purpose of bundling with computer hardware. The third-party software that comes with your digital camera, graphics tablet, printer or scanner is an example of OEM software.

In many cases, this bundled software is an older version of a program that is also sold on its own as a stand alone product. Sometimes it is a feature-limited version of the retail software, often dubbed as a “special edition” (SE) or “limited edition” (LE). The purpose is to give users of the new product software to work with out of the box, but also to tempt them to purchase the current or fully-functional version of the software.

Log on with both user name and password

Not every user account is meant to be seen by other people. When password-protection just doesn’t cut it and you want that extra bit of discretion, you should hide your accounts from the log-in screen altogether. Here’s how.

It’s not always the best idea to use the same user account for every task. Variety is the spice of life, and having multiple log-ins can help you keep yourself organized. It’s often beneficial to separate the different areas of your digital activities cleanly, such as financial transactions from private conversations. However, these extra accounts don’t have to be seen by everyone. We’ll show you how you can make them invisible by having Windows ask all users to enter both their user name and password instead of just selecting their user symbol. See also: How to customize the Windows 7 logon screen

There are two main methods to do this: Either by going through the registry or by going through the “Local Security Policies” of Windows. Keep in mind that the latter of which will only work on Windows 7 Professional and Ultimate, however.


What is Alternate Configuration?

Alternate Configuration is useful if you use the same computer on more than one network and at least one of the networks does not have a DHCP server, for example, laptop users can use Alternate Configuration to automatically assign IP addresses on both office and home networks without having to manually reconfigure the TCP/IP settings.

Alternate Configuration provides two methods of automatically assigning an IP address: user configured Alternate Configuration, and APIPA.

User configured Alternate Configuration provides more detailed parameters than APIPA. If you need a specific IP address and subnet mask for a client, or access to a default gateway, a DNS server, or a WINS server, you should use user configured Alternate Configuration supply the required information.

If you’re happy with a reserved IP address in the to range and you don’t need access to a default gateway, a DNS server or a WINS server, then you can use APIPA.

How to Prevent access to CMD , Run and …

Group Policy Editor

Disable RUN:

User Conf / Admin Template / Start Menu and taskbar / remove run from start menu

Disable CMD:

User Conf / Admin Template / System / Prevent access to the command prompt

Disable Registry Editor:

User Conf / Admin Template / System / Prevent access to the Registry Editor

Disable General Tab:

User Conf / Windows Component / Internet Explorer / Internet Control panel / disable the General page

Disable Connection Tab:

User Conf / Windows Component / Internet Explorer / Internet Control panel / disable the Connection page